MOSCOW, September 16. /TASS/. On September 17, 2021, voting in the elections to the 8th Russian State Duma (lower house of parliament) will kick off. The balloting process will span across three days - September 17, 18, and 19, alongside the election of regional and local authorities in Russia’s federal subjects.
In all, the Central Election Commission (CEC) registered the lists of 14 political parties. All of them were admitted to the elections without collecting voters’ signatures, since they are represented in the State Duma or in regional legislatures. Of the 14 parties, 11 were participants in the 2016 parliamentary elections. Four parties - United Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, the Liberal Democratic Party and A Just Russia - managed to overcome the 5% election threshold.
1. LDPR - the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
The oldest of modern Russia’s political parties, founded on March 31, 1990, as the Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union (LDPSS). In April 1991 it was registered by the Ministry of Justice. Became the second officially registered party in the Soviet Union after the Communist Party. In 1992 it was renamed to the all-Russia social and political organization Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR). In December 2001, it was reorganized into a political party. Vladimir Zhirinovsky has been its leader since it was established.
The LDPR adheres to centrist views, actively promotes patriotic ideas, denies Communist ideology and positions itself as an opposition to the current authorities. Declares the need for protecting Russians and the Russian language and tightening migration policies.
The party took part in all State Duma elections. It achieved the best ever election result in 1993 (22.92%, first place). It is one of the two Russian parties (along with the CPRF), which, following election campaigns, always won seats in the lower house of parliament. LDPR branches are open in all 85 constituent territories of Russia.
2. Communist party "Communists of Russia"
Founded on May 23, 2009, as an all-Russia public organization Communists of Russia and an alternative to the CPRF. Since April 22, 2012 - Communist Party "Communists of Russia".
The chairman of its central committee is Maxim Suraikin.
The party positions itself as the legal successor of the CPSU. Campaigns for the return of Russia "to the path of socialist development", the establishment of government by the people, the restoration of a society of social justice and the building of Communism.
In 2016, the party took part in the elections of State Duma members for the first time. However, the list of "Communists of Russia" fell short of the minimum 5% target (2.27% of the votes, 5th place out of 14) and remained outside the State Duma. Currently, the party is represented in regional legislative assemblies by seven deputies.
According to the Central Election Commission, regional branches of "Communists of Russia" operate in 75 constituent territories of Russia.
3. Socialist political party "A Just Russia - Patriots - For Truth"
Founded on October 28, 2006, as A Just Russia: Motherland/Pensioners/ Life as a result of a merger of the Russian Party of Life, the Russian Party of Pensioners and Rodina (Motherland). Since June 2009 - A Just Russia. On February 22, 2021, as a result of a merger with the Patriots of Russia and the party For Truth it was renamed to A Just Russia - Patriots For Truth (short name - A Just Russia - For Truth).
The party's leader is Sergey Mironov. The co-leaders are Zakhar Prilepin and Gennady Semigin.
The program rests upon "the basic values of the modern socialist outlook - justice, freedom and solidarity." A Just Russia - For Truth is for the subordination of the state strategy of economic development to social priorities, the optimal combination of all forms of ownership, government and public control of natural monopolies and public corporations, etc. The party has been participating in the elections to the State Duma since 2007. It scored the best result in the 2011 elections (13.24%). In the 2016 elections, the party won 6.22% of the votes (to take fourth place out of 14) and gained 23 seats in parliament (the fourth largest faction). According to the CEC, 206 party members work in regional legislative assemblies.
Regional offices operate in all 85 constituent territories of Russia.
4. Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF)
Founded at a national congress on February 13-14, 1993 as the successor of the Communist parties of the Soviet Union and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR).
The chairman of the central committee is Gennady Zyuganov. He has led the CPRF since inception.
The party's ideology is based on the Marxist-Leninist teaching. The CPRF’s main task is the creation of "renewed socialism" in Russia. The Communist Party stands for the creation of a "society of social justice on the principles of collectivism, freedom and equality" and "government by the working people and popular patriotic forces." Among the declared goals are nationalization of natural resources and strategic sectors of the economy, creation of conditions for the development of small and medium-sized businesses, free secondary and higher education, available public health care, etc.
The CPRF is a parliamentary party. Along with the LDPR, it has been represented in the State Duma since 1993 and has participated in all seven Duma election campaigns. Twice - in 1995 and 1999 - the list of the Communist Party’s candidates took first place. The best result was in 1999 (24.29%). In 2016, it was supported by 13.34% of the voters (second place after United Russia). The Communist Party won 42 seats and formed the second largest faction. In the regional legislative assemblies, according to the CEC, the CPRF controls 457 seats. CPRF branches are open in all 85 constituent territories of Russia.
5. Political party "Civic Platform"
Founded on July 7, 2012, at the initiative of businessman Mikhail Prokhorov as a "compact professional party". In the spring of 2015, due to an internal conflict, the party split up. Prokhorov and his supporters left Civic Platform, after which a new composition of the party’s governing bodies was formed.
The chairman of the federal political committee is Rifat Shaikhutdinov.
Civic Platform is a right-wing party of liberal-conservative views. Supports the creation of a modern social state ruled by law, the development of civil society, the strengthening of democratic institutions, an effective market economy, the inviolability of private property, etc. Civic Platform participated in Duma elections only once. In 2016, 0.22% voted for its list (13th place out of 14). The party remained outside the State Duma. In the regional legislative assemblies, there are five Civic Platform members. Regional branches of the Civic Platform operate in 69 constituent territories of Russia.
6. Russian Party of Freedom and Justice
Founded on April 8, 2012, at the initiative of political strategist Andrei Bogdanov, the leader of the Democratic Party of Russia, as the Communist Party of Social Justice. Known under its current name since March 28, 2021.
The chairman of the central committee is Konstantin Rykov and the party’s leader is journalist Maxim Shevchenko.
The RPFJ is a left-of-center party. Its main proclaimed goal is creation of a socialist state. The party seeks changes to the state policy in the interests of the people. It is opposed to the stratification of society into the rich and the poor, and presses for the fight against corruption, for full-scale free education and health care, etc.
The party did not participate in the elections to the State Duma in 2016.
Currently, the RPFJ is represented by one legislator in the Legislative Assembly of the Vladimir Region.
Regional offices operate in 49 constituent territories of Russia.
7. All-Russia Political Party "Rodina"
Its history is traced back to the Party of Russian Regions (PRR), created in 1998. In 2004, the PRR was renamed to the Rodina party. In this form it existed for two years. In 2006, it was liquidated and simultaneously entered the party A Just Russia: Motherland/Pensioners/Life (A Just Russia). On September 29, 2012, it was re-established as an independent political organization.
The party chairman is Alexey Zhuravlyov.
A right-of-center party positioning itself as a social-patriotic force and an adherent of principles of national-conservatism. Supports the political course of the country's leadership. Advocates national interests and traditional values, stronger role of regions, departure from a raw materials-based economy, and tougher migration policy.
In the 2016 State Duma elections, the party failed to clear the 5% hurdle, gaining 1.51% of the votes (eighth place out of 14). Six deputies from Rodina currently work in the regional legislative assemblies. The party’s branches operate in 80 constituent territories of Russia.
8. Russian ecological party "The Greens"
Emerged as the Constructive-Ecological Movement of Russia Kedr in April 1993. In 2002, the Russian ecological party The Greens was founded. In October 2008, the party became part of A Just Russia. On February 11, 2012, it was restored as an independent political organization.
Its leader is Andrei Nagibin.
Central to the party’s ideology is the idea of preserving the environment and improving the quality of life through the promotion of what is called "green principles" in all spheres of the economy and society’s life. The Greens advocate strict control of emissions from industrial enterprises, upgrading of the existing production facilities, government support for "green investment projects", etc.
In the 2016 State Duma elections, the party was unable to get over the 5% barrier, gaining 0.76% of the votes (tenth place out of 14). According to the CEC, four Greens are members of regional legislative assemblies.
There are 78 regional branches of the party.
9. Political party "Green Alternative"
Founded in December 2019 as a social movement. Since March 10, 2020 - a political party.
The chairman is Ruslan Khvostov, and leader - painter Alexei Kudelin (Vasya Lozhkin).
The party’s main goal is the solution of pressing environmental problems in Russia, as well as the promotion of environmental values at all levels of government and public dialogue. The party supports the Fridays For Future, an international public movement to fight global warming, created by Greta Thunberg.
In September 2020, the Green Alternative received one deputy mandate in regional parliamentary elections in the Chelyabinsk Region and another in the Komi Republic.
Party branches are registered in 49 regions of Russia.
10. Russian Party of Pensioners for Social Justice
Founded as the Russian Party of Pensioners (RPP) in 1997. In 2006, together with the Russian Party of Life and Rodina became part of A Just Russia. In 2007, on the basis of the RPP, the social organization Russian Pensioners for Justice was created. On April 7, 2012, it was transformed into a party.
The chairman of the central council is Vladimir Burakov.
A social-conservative party. Supports the preservation of traditional values, patriotism, national and interfaith harmony. Among its proposals are an increase in government spending on pensions, the liquidation of the Russian Pension Fund, greater spending on health care, etc.
After its restoration in 2012, the Russian Party of Pensioners for Social Justice took part in the Duma elections in 2016. The party’s list received 1.73% of the votes (7th place out of 14). Currently, 17 deputies from the party work in regional legislative assemblies.
Regional offices operate in 75 constituent territories of Russia.
11. All-Russia political party "Party of Growth"
It was formed on November 16, 2008, as a political party called Right Cause through a merger of the Union of Right Forces, Civilian Power and the Democratic Party of Russia. After reorganization on February 29, 2016, it changed its name to the Party of Growth.
The leader is Boris Titov, Commissioner for the Protection of the Rights of Entrepreneurs in Russia.
The party defines its ideology as right-liberal and positions itself as a "constructive opposition". Its national idea is growth of the country's economy for the sake of the well-being of its citizens.
The party took part in the Duma elections twice (in 2011 as Right Cause and in 2016 as the Party of Growth), but has never been able to gain a representation in parliament. According to the CEC, seven deputies from the Party of Growth Party currently work in the regional legislative assemblies.
Regional offices have been established in 81 constituent territories of Russia.
12. Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko"
The forerunner of today’s party was the Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin electoral bloc, created in 1993 ahead of the first State Duma elections. It derives its name from the initials of its cofounders: economist Grigory Yavlinsky, former head of the control department of the Russian presidential staff Yuri Boldyrev, and former Russian ambassador to the United States, Vladimir Lukin. In 1995, the bloc was transformed into a public association and in 1998, into a political organization. In 2006, the party changed its name to the Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko".
The chairman is Nikolai Rybakov.
Yabloko is a proponent of social-liberal views. Supports the creation of a modern social state ruled by law, development of civil society, promotion of democratic institutions, an effective socially oriented market economy, inviolability of private property, and restoration of "relations of partnership" between Russia and the Western countries.
The party took part in all parliamentary election campaigns in Russia, but entered the State Duma only thrice (in 1993, 1995 and 1999). Yabloko achieved the best result in 1993 (7.86%). In the 2016 elections, the party's list won 1.99% of the votes (sixth place out of 14), which left Yabloko outside the State Duma. In the legislative assemblies of Russia’s regions, the party is represented by 11 deputies.
Regional offices operate in 79 constituent territories of Russia.
13. Political party "New People"
Founded on March 1, 2020, at the initiative of Alexey Nechayev, president of the open joint stock company Faberlic, a member of the central office of the All-Russia People’s Front (APRF).
The chairman is Alexey Nechayev.
A right-of-center party. Supports the turnover of power, reduction of the bureaucratic machinery, direct elections of mayors of Russian cities, the development of industry and high-tech production, as well as the production of goods and services, creation of conditions for the development of small businesses, reform of the law enforcement agencies, creation of up-to-date infrastructure and jobs in the regions, etc.
Currently, there are seven party members taking seats on regional parliaments.
Branches of New People are registered in 55 regions of Russia.
14. All-Russia political party "United Russia"
It was formed on December 1, 2001, as the all-Russia party Unity and Fatherland - United Russia as a result of the merger of the party Unity and the movement Fatherland-All Russia. Known under its current name since December 24, 2003.
The party's leader is Dmitry Medvedev, deputy chairman of Russia’s Security Council, former president and prime minister.
United Russia is a parliamentary party. It is the largest in Russia and has a constitutional majority in the State Duma of Russia.
It positions itself as a "party of popular majority - citizens of the country who support the President of Russia and his strategic course." Its ideology is based on the principles of centrism and conservatism. The party advocates strengthening Russia's sovereignty and defenses, patriotic education of youth, a competitive economy, growing investment and innovations, democracy, civil society institutions, etc.
The party took part in parliamentary elections four times, always taking first place. Its best result was in 2007 (64.3%). As a result of the elections, United Russia formed the largest parliamentary faction. Representatives of the United Russia faction have led the lower house since 2003.
In 2016, the party won 54.2% of the votes (first place) and received 344 seats - an absolute record in the entire history of the lower house of parliament. In the regional legislative assemblies currently there are 2,772 United Russia members.
United Russia branches are open in all 85 constituent territories of Russia.