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The concept of Energy Trilemma developed by the World Energy Council is based on three core dimensions: energy security, energy equity and environmental sustainability. A balance between them would be impossible without international cooperation at different levels and integration of energy systems. However, the politicisation of the issue impedes its solution.
According to the concept, every nation must maintain a balance between the three pillars of the trilemma. Hence the countries with a focus on environment (using geothermal energy and hydroenergy), such as Iceland, Columbia or the Philippines, can rely too much on one source of energy only, which brings down the level of their energy security. Oil-producing nations, on the contrary, should expand their use of renewable energy sources.
The balance is assessed using the index developed by the World Energy Council (World Energy Trilemma Index).
Today nine out of ten leading countries in the index are European (with New Zealand on the 9th spot and Russia ranking 45th out of 125). This is largely a result of Europe’s long-term balanced energy policy:
Cooperation with Russia plays an important role for the EU, not only in supply of hydrocarbons, but also in integration of nuclear energy.
The integration measures within the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) have become a step towards energy security on the continent:
Russia’s energy integration also plays an important role in East Asia.
The largest-scale project is the Asian Energy Ring, which will connect the energy systems of Russia, Japan, Korea and China. The commencement of the work was announced at the 2016 St. Petersburg International Economic Forum. The first stage of the Ring is Russia–Japan. The project will enable its participants to obtain cheaper, more affordable energy and boost their energy security.