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Sustainable development relies on low-carbon economy. Its pillars are energy efficiency, renewables and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. So far, Russia has been sitting on the proverbial fence when it comes to environmental commitments.
At the 21st UN Climate Change Conference (December 2015), 196 countries signed an agreement on limiting global warming to less than 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels.
Renewable energy sources are one way towards low-carbon economy.
Under the Paris Agreement, Russia has committed to cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 25–30% by 2030.
However, the International Renewable Energy Agency believes that by 2030 Russia will be lagging behind the rest of the world, regardless of the planned investments into renewables (USD 53 billion through 2035).
As of now, 65% of Russian electricity comes from conventional combined heat and power plants. Alternative sources are responsible for less than 1%.
The key climate-related challenges for Russia include: energy efficiency in public utilities, power generation, transportation and manufacturing, green transportation systems and energy efficient buildings, renewable energy expansion, and nuclear power.