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NOVOSIBIRSK, January 19. /TASS/. Scientists from Novosibirsk and France have received new data on formation of the Siberian Craton, where Russia has the biggest diamond deposit. Results of studies in history of the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe (diamond deposit in northern Yakutia) will be helpful for forecasting new sources of diamond, Russian scientists, involved in the research, told TASS on Thursday.
Specialists of the Novosibirsk State University and the Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Geology and Mineralogy study the nature of cratons - stable passages of the continental crust, taking most parts of the continents. Only ancient cratons are potential sources of diamonds.
Scientists have specified age of the samples from the kimberlite pipe, taken at the depths of 10-50km. The conclusion is that most layers of the earth’s crust formed about 1.8 billion years ago, and the upper layers - 2.7 billion years ago. "We have found out that the cratons were formed in two stages, while formerly scientists thougt they were formed within one stage, about 2.5 billion years ago," Alexander Golovin of the Novosibirsk University said.
The Udachnaya kimberlite pipe is the biggest diamond deposit in Russia, which further to the north from the Arctic Circle in Yakutia. The deposit was discovered in 1955. Alrosa, the world’s biggest producer of diamonds (in terms of carats), develops the deposit. The diamond production in the pipe made 3,515 million carats in 2015.